Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck researched the role of implicit beliefs about intelligence in adolescents' Mathematics achievement as well as the consequences of teaching them that intelligence is not fixed.
Participants: 373 (198 females and 175 males) seventh grade students in study 1. 99 students (49 female and 50 males).
Method: At the beginning of the fall term, the students completed a questionnaire assessing their beliefs about intelligence in study 1.
In study 2, the students had sessions to learn about the Incremental Theory and the same questionnaire from the study 1 was reconducted.
Results: These studies revealed that when students hold the belief in incremental theory, they carry learning goals in their academic tasks, make fewer ability-related attributions, carry more positive reactions to failure thus increase their Mathematics achievement. In addition, teaching them that intelligence is malleable resulted in increasing motivation in the lessons.
For further reading: Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski K. H. , & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention. Child Development 78 (1), 246-263.
If we are all clear about these theories and concepts, we can move on to the next section: Implications for educators and learn how we can deal with our performance-oriented students with fixed mindsets.